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Types of Traumatic Brain Injuries

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are among the most serious and debilitating injuries a person can suffer. They come with an array of physical consequences, and they often also have psychological and emotional effects on victims, their families, and caregivers.

These injuries are surprisingly common. Studies say TBIs affect nearly 2 million U.S. citizens each year.

Here is a look at different types of TBIs. This information can help you comprehend a TBI’s symptoms, diagnosis strategies, treatment options, and more.


A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury that occurs from a blow to the head. You could also receive a concussion when a sudden stop sends your brain forward or backward, slamming against your skull.

Concussions disrupt normal brain function. Symptoms can include:

  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Headaches
  • Sensitivity to light and noise

If you do experience a blow to the head, seek medical attention right away. If you catch a concussion early, you could prevent some of the more severe, long-term effects.


A contusion is a bruise on the brain. Normally, it is the result of direct impact. When a forceful blow to the head happens, brain tissue can be damaged and blood vessels can burst, leading to a bruise. The effects of a contusion can vary from person to person and depend on the severity of the injury.

Common symptoms can include:

  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Headaches
  • Difficulty with coordination

A bad contusion can lead to more severe symptoms, such as seizures or even unconsciousness.

With proper care and rest, most mild to moderate contusions can be treated and successfully heal.

Diffuse Axonal Injury

With this injury, nerve cells are pulled or torn apart due to a sudden acceleration or deceleration force. You often see these injuries in bad car accidents.

A diffuse axonal injury, or DAI, is serious. It can disrupt communication between different parts of the brain. As a result, individuals with DAI may experience a variety of symptoms, including:

  • Confusion
  • Memory loss
  • Impaired coordination

Penetrating Brain Injury

This is an injury that penetrates the skull and causes damage to the brain. Anything from a severe car accident to a gunshot wound can cause this.

A penetrating brain injury is extreme and requires immediate medical attention. The severity of the injury depends on the location of the penetration, the force of impact, and the cause of the injury.

These injuries can lead to a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments. Survivors often require long-term medical care and rehabilitation to manage their symptoms and maintain their quality of life. Early diagnosis and effective treatment are critical. They can maximize the chances of recovery.

Anoxic Brain Injury

This injury is caused by oxygen deprivation. They are often the result of a near-drowning.

An anoxic brain injury is serious and often irreversible. During these events, the brain's oxygen supply is completely cut off, which can lead to significant damage and loss of function.

Depending on the severity and duration of the oxygen deprivation, the effects of an anoxic brain injury can vary. They range from minor memory loss and confusion to severe cognitive impairment and even coma.

Hypoxic Brain Injury

A hypoxic brain injury is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. It is caused by a decreased amount of oxygen. This can happen from smoke inhalation or drowning.

The severity of the injury can range from temporary confusion and disorientation to paralysis, coma, and even death. These effects can be long-lasting and require extensive rehabilitation.

Any brain injury, even those considered “minor,” can lead to lifelong consequences. If someone else’s negligence leaves you with a TBI, you deserve compensation. You can contact Masella Law Firm, P.A. for help by calling (803) 938-4952 or reaching out to us online.